Anfal is "the name given by the Iraqis to a series of military actions which lasted from February 23 until September 6, 1988. While it is impossible to understand the Anfal campaign without reference to the final phase of the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War, Anfal was not merely a function of that war. Rather, the winding-up of the conflict on Iraq's terms was the immediate historical circumstance that gave Baghdad the opportunity to bring to a climax its longstanding efforts to bring the Kurds to heal."
from Genocide in Iraq: The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds
Select any of the maps on this page to view a full, detailed map. The first map presents an overview of the Anfal campaigns. The other seven maps show the settings of the individual Anfal campaigns.